This document describes how to do Item-based Collaborative Filtering using Hivemall.

Caution

Naive similarity computation is O(n^2) to compute all item-item pair similarity. In order to accelerate the procedure, Hivemall has an efficient scheme for computing Jaccard and/or cosine similarity as mentioned later.

Prepare transaction table

Prepare following transaction table. We will generate feature_vector for each itemid based on cooccurrence of purchased items, a sort of bucket analysis.

userid itemid purchase_at timestamp
1 31231 2015-04-9 00:29:02
1 13212 2016-05-24 16:29:02
2 312 2016-06-03 23:29:02
3 2313 2016-06-04 19:29:02
.. .. ..

Create item_features table

What we want for creating a feature vector for each item is the following cooccurrence relation.

itemid other cnt
583266 621056 9999
583266 583266 18
31231 13212 129
31231 31231 3
31231 9833 953
... ... ...

Feature vectors of each item will be as follows:

itemid feature_vector array<string>
583266 621056:9999, 583266:18
31231 13212:129, 31231:3, 9833:953
... ...

Note that value of feature vector should be scaled for k-NN similarity computation e.g., as follows:

itemid feature_vector array<string>
583266 621056:ln(9999+1), 583266:ln(18+1)
31231 13212:ln(129+1), 31231:ln(3+1), 9833:ln(953+1)
... ...

The following queries results in creating the above table.

Step 1: Creating user_purchased table

The following query creates a table that contains userid, itemid, and purchased_at. The table represents the last user-item contact (purchase) while the transaction table holds all contacts.

CREATE TABLE user_purchased as
-- INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE user_purchased
select 
  userid,
  itemid,
  max(purchased_at) as purchased_at,
  count(1) as purchase_count
from
  transaction
-- where purchased_at < xxx -- divide training/testing data by time 
group by
  userid, itemid
;

Note

Better to avoid too old transactions because those information would be outdated though an enough number of transactions is required for recommendation.

Step 2: Creating cooccurrence table

Caution

Item-item cooccurrence matrix is a symmetric matrix that has the number of total occurrence for each diagonal element. If the size of items is k, then the size of expected matrix is k * (k - 1) / 2, usually a very large one. Hence, it is better to use step 2-2 instead of step 2-1 for creating a cooccurrence table where dataset is large.

Step 2-1: Create cooccurrence table directly

create table cooccurrence as 
-- INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE cooccurrence
select
  u1.itemid,
  u2.itemid as other, 
  count(1) as cnt
from
  user_purchased u1
  JOIN user_purchased u2 ON (u1.userid = u2.userid)
where
  u1.itemid != u2.itemid 
  -- AND u2.purchased_at >= u1.purchased_at -- the other item should be purchased with/after the base item
group by
  u1.itemid, u2.itemid
-- having -- optional but recommended to have this condition where dataset is large
--  cnt >= 2 -- count(1) >= 2
;

Note

Note that specifying having cnt >= 2 has a drawback that item cooccurrence is not calculated where cnt is less than 2. It could result no recommended items for certain items. Please ignore having cnt >= 2 if the following computations finish in an acceptable/reasonable time.


Caution

We ignore a purchase order in the following example. It means that the occurrence counts of ItemA -> ItemB and ItemB -> ItemA are assumed to be same. It is sometimes not a good idea in terms of reasoning; for example, Camera -> SD card and SD card -> Camera need to be considered separately.

Step 2-2: Create cooccurrence table from Upper Triangular Matrix of cooccurrence

Better to create Upper Triangular Matrix that has itemid > other if resulting table is very large. No need to create Upper Triangular Matrix if your Hadoop cluster can handle the following instructions without considering it.

create table cooccurrence_upper_triangular as 
-- INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE cooccurrence_upper_triangular
select
  u1.itemid,
  u2.itemid as other, 
  count(1) as cnt
from
  user_purchased u1
  JOIN user_purchased u2 ON (u1.userid = u2.userid)
where
  u1.itemid > u2.itemid 
group by
  u1.itemid, u2.itemid
;
create table cooccurrence as 
-- INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE cooccurrence
select * from (
  select itemid, other, cnt from cooccurrence_upper_triangular
  UNION ALL
  select other as itemid, itemid as other, cnt from cooccurrence_upper_triangular
) t;

Note

UNION ALL required to be embedded in Hive.

Limiting size of elements in cooccurrence_upper_triangular

Using only top-N frequently co-occurred item pairs allows you to reduce the size of cooccurrence table:

create table cooccurrence_upper_triangular as
WITH t1 as (
  select
    u1.itemid,
    u2.itemid as other, 
    count(1) as cnt
  from
    user_purchased u1
    JOIN user_purchased u2 ON (u1.userid = u2.userid)
  where
    u1.itemid > u2.itemid 
  group by
    u1.itemid, u2.itemid
),
t2 as (
  select
    each_top_k( -- top 1000
      1000, itemid, cnt, 
      itemid, other, cnt
    ) as (rank, cmpkey, itemid, other, cnt)
  from (
    select * from t1
    CLUSTER BY itemid
  ) t;
)
-- INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE cooccurrence_upper_triangular
select itemid, other, cnt
from t2;
create table cooccurrence as 
WITh t1 as (
  select itemid, other, cnt from cooccurrence_upper_triangular
  UNION ALL
  select other as itemid, itemid as other, cnt from cooccurrence_upper_triangular
),
t2 as (
  select
    each_top_k(
      1000, itemid, cnt,
      itemid, other, cnt
    ) as (rank, cmpkey, itemid, other, cnt)
  from (
    select * from t1
    CLUSTER BY itemid
  ) t
)
-- INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE cooccurrence
select itemid, other, cnt
from t2;

Computing cooccurrence ratio (optional step)

You can optionally compute cooccurrence ratio as follows:

WITH stats as (
  select 
    itemid,
    sum(cnt) as totalcnt
  from 
    cooccurrence
  group by
    itemid
)
INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE cooccurrence_ratio
SELECT
  l.itemid,
  l.other, 
  (l.cnt / r.totalcnt) as ratio
FROM
  cooccurrence l
  JOIN stats r ON (l.itemid = r.itemid)
group by
  l.itemid, l.other
;

l.cnt / r.totalcnt represents a cooccurrence ratio of range [0,1].

Step 3: Creating a feature vector for each item

INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE item_features
SELECT
  itemid,
  -- scaling `ln(cnt+1)` to avoid large value in the feature vector
  -- rounding to xxx.yyyyy to reduce size of feature_vector in array<string>
  collect_list(feature(other, round(ln(cnt+1),5))) as feature_vector
FROM
  cooccurrence
GROUP BY
  itemid
;

Compute item similarity scores

Item-item similarity computation is known to be computational complexity O(n^2) where n is the number of items. We have two options to compute the similarities, and, depending on your cluster size and your dataset, the optimal solution differs.

Note

If your dataset is large enough, better to choose modified version of option 1, which utilizes the symmetric property of similarity matrix.

Option 1: Parallel computation with computationally heavy shuffling

This version involves 3-way joins w/ large data shuffle; However, this version works in parallel where a cluster has enough task slots.

WITH similarity as (
  select
    o.itemid,
    o.other,
    cosine_similarity(t1.feature_vector, t2.feature_vector) as similarity
  from
    cooccurrence o
    JOIN item_features t1 ON (o.itemid = t1.itemid)
    JOIN item_features t2 ON (o.other = t2.itemid)
),
topk as (
  select
    each_top_k( -- get top-10 items based on similarity score
      10, itemid, similarity,
      itemid, other -- output items
    ) as (rank, similarity, itemid, other)
  from (
    select * from similarity
    where similarity > 0 -- similarity > 0.01
    CLUSTER BY itemid
  ) t
)
INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE item_similarity
select 
  itemid, other, similarity
from 
  topk;

Taking advantage of the symmetric property of item similarity matrix

Notice that item_similarity is a symmetric matrix. So, you can compute it from an upper triangular matrix as follows.

WITH cooccurrence_top100 as (
  select
    each_top_k(
      100, itemid, cnt,  
      itemid, other
    ) as (rank, cmpkey, itemid, other)
  from (
    select * from cooccurrence_upper_triangular
    CLUSTER BY itemid
  ) t
), 
similarity as (
  select
    o.itemid,
    o.other,
    cosine_similarity(t1.feature_vector, t2.feature_vector) as similarity
  from
    cooccurrence_top100 o
    -- cooccurrence_upper_triangular o
    JOIN item_features t1 ON (o.itemid = t1.itemid)
    JOIN item_features t2 ON (o.other = t2.itemid)
),
topk as (
  select
    each_top_k( -- get top-10 items based on similarity score
      10, itemid, similarity,
      itemid, other -- output items
    ) as (rank, similarity, itemid, other)
  from (
    select * from similarity
    where similarity > 0 -- similarity > 0.01
    CLUSTER BY itemid
  ) t
)
INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE item_similarity_upper_triangler
select 
  itemid, other, similarity
from 
  topk;
INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE item_similarity
select * from (
  select itemid, other, similarity from item_similarity_upper_triangler
  UNION ALL
  select other as itemid, itemid as other, similarity from item_similarity_upper_triangler
) t;

Option 2: Sequential computation

Alternatively, you can compute cosine similarity as follows. This version involves cross join and thus runs sequentially in a single task. However, it involves less shuffle compared to option 1.

WITH similarity as (
  select
   t1.itemid,
   t2.itemid as other,
   cosine_similarity(t1.feature_vector, t2.feature_vector) as similarity
  from
   item_features t1
   CROSS JOIN item_features t2
  WHERE
    t1.itemid != t2.itemid
),
topk as (
  select
    each_top_k( -- get top-10 items based on similarity score
      10, itemid, similarity,
      itemid, other -- output items
    ) as (rank, similarity, itemid, other)
  from (
    select * from similarity
    where similarity > 0 -- similarity > 0.01
    CLUSTER BY itemid
  ) t
)
INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE item_similarity
select 
  itemid, other, similarity
from 
  topk
;
item other similarity
583266 621056 0.33
583266 583266 0.18
31231 13212 1.29
31231 31231 0.3
31231 9833 0.953
... ... ...

Item-based recommendation

This section introduces item-based recommendation based on recently purchased items by each user.

Caution

It would better to ignore recommending some of items that user already purchased (only 1 time) while items that are purchased twice or more would be okey to be included in the recommendation list (e.g., repeatedly purchased daily necessities). So, you would need an item property table showing that each item is repeatedly purchased items or not.

Step 1: Computes top-k recently purchased items for each user

First, prepare recently_purchased_items table as follows:

INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE recently_purchased_items
select
  each_top_k( -- get top-5 recently purchased items for each user
     5, userid, purchased_at,
     userid, itemid
  ) as (rank, purchased_at, userid, itemid)
from (
  select
    purchased_at, userid, itemid
  from 
    user_purchased
  -- where [optional filtering]
  --  purchased_at >= xxx -- divide training/test data by time
  CLUSTER BY
    user_id -- Note CLUSTER BY is mandatory when using each_top_k
) t;

Step 2: Recommend top-k items based on users' recently purchased items

In order to generate a list of recommended items, you can use either cooccurrence count or similarity as a relevance score.

Caution

In order to obtain ranked list of items, this section introduces queries using map_values(to_ordered_map(rank, rec_item)). However, this kind of usage has a potential issue that multiple rec_item-s which have the exactly same rank will be aggregated to single arbitrary rec_item, because to_ordered_map() creates a key-value map which uses duplicated rank as key.

Since such situation is possible in case that each_top_k() is executed for different userid-s who have the same cnt or similarity, we recommend you to use to_ordered_list(rec_item, rank, '-reverse') instead of map_values(to_ordered_map(rank, rec_item, true)). The alternative approach is available from Hivemall v0.5-rc.1 or later.

Cooccurrence-based

WITH topk as (
  select
    each_top_k(
       5, userid, cnt,
       userid, other
    ) as (rank, cnt, userid, rec_item)
  from (
    select 
      t1.userid, t2.other, max(t2.cnt) as cnt
    from
      recently_purchased_items t1
      JOIN cooccurrence t2 ON (t1.itemid = t2.itemid)
    where
      t1.itemid != t2.other -- do not include items that user already purchased
      AND NOT EXISTS (
        SELECT a.itemid FROM user_purchased a
        WHERE a.userid = t1.userid AND a.itemid = t2.other
--        AND a.purchased_count <= 1 -- optional
      )
    group by
      t1.userid, t2.other
    CLUSTER BY
      userid -- top-k grouping by userid
  ) t1
)
INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE item_recommendation
select
  userid,
  map_values(to_ordered_map(rank, rec_item)) as rec_items
from
  topk
group by
  userid
;

Similarity-based

WITH topk as (
  select
    each_top_k(
       5, userid, similarity,
       userid, other
    ) as (rank, similarity, userid, rec_item)
  from (
    select
      t1.userid, t2.other, max(t2.similarity) as similarity
    from
      recently_purchased_items t1
      JOIN item_similarity t2 ON (t1.itemid = t2.itemid)
    where
      t1.itemid != t2.other -- do not include items that user already purchased
      AND NOT EXISTS (
        SELECT a.itemid FROM user_purchased a
        WHERE a.userid = t1.userid AND a.itemid = t2.other
--        AND a.purchased_count <= 1 -- optional
      )
    group by
      t1.userid, t2.other
    CLUSTER BY
      userid -- top-k grouping by userid
  ) t1
)
INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE item_recommendation
select
  userid,
  map_values(to_ordered_map(rank, rec_item)) as rec_items
from
  topk
group by
  userid
;

Efficient similarity computation

Since naive similarity computation takes O(n^2) computational complexity, utilizing a certain approximation scheme is practically important to improve efficiency and feasibility. In particular, Hivemall enables you to use one of two sophisticated approximation schemes, MinHash and DIMSUM.

MinHash: Compute "pseudo" Jaccard similarity

Refer this article to get details about MinHash and Jarccard similarity. This blog article also explains about Hivemall's minhash.

INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE minhash -- results in 30x records of item_features
select  
  -- assign 30 minhash values for each item
  minhash(itemid, feature_vector, "-n 30") as (clusterid, itemid) -- '-n' would be 10~100
from
  item_features
;

WITH t1 as (
  select
    l.itemid,
    r.itemid as other,
    count(1) / 30 as similarity -- Pseudo jaccard similarity '-n 30'
  from
    minhash l 
    JOIN minhash r 
      ON (l.clusterid = r.clusterid)
  where 
    l.itemid != r.itemid
  group by
    l.itemid, r.itemid
  having
    count(1) >= 3 -- [optional] filtering equals to (count(1)/30) >= 0.1
),
top100 as (
  select
    each_top_k(100, itemid, similarity, itemid, other)
      as (rank, similarity, itemid, other)
  from (
    select * from t1 
    -- where similarity >= 0.1 -- Optional filtering. Can be ignored.
    CLUSTER BY itemid 
  ) t2
)
INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE jaccard_similarity
select
  itemid, other, similarity
from
  top100
;

Note

There might be no similar item for certain items.

Compute approximated cosine similarity by using the MinHash-based Jaccard similarity

Once the MinHash-based approach found rough top-N similar items, you can efficiently find top-k similar items in terms of cosine similarity, where k << N (e.g., k=10 and N=100).

WITH similarity as (
  select
    o.itemid,
    o.other,
    cosine_similarity(t1.feature_vector, t2.feature_vector) as similarity
  from
    jaccard_similarity o
    JOIN item_features t1 ON (o.itemid = t1.itemid)
    JOIN item_features t2 ON (o.other = t2.itemid)
),
topk as (
  select
    each_top_k( -- get top-10 items based on similarity score
      10, itemid, similarity,
      itemid, other -- output items
    ) as (rank, similarity, itemid, other)
  from (
    select * from similarity
    where similarity > 0 -- similarity > 0.01
    CLUSTER BY itemid
  ) t
)
INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE cosine_similarity
select 
  itemid, other, similarity
from 
  topk;

DIMSUM: Approximated all-pairs "Cosine" similarity computation

Note

This feature is supported from Hivemall v0.5-rc.1 or later.

DIMSUM is a technique to efficiently and approximately compute Cosine similarities for all-pairs of items. You can refer to an article in Twitter's Engineering blog to learn how DIMSUM reduces running time.

Here, let us begin with the user_purchased table. item_similarity table can be obtained as follows:

create table item_similarity as
with item_magnitude as ( -- compute magnitude of each item vector
  select
    to_map(j, mag) as mags
  from (
    select 
      itemid as j,
      l2_norm(ln(purchase_count+1)) as mag -- use scaled value
    from 
      user_purchased
    group by
      itemid
  ) t0
),
item_features as (
  select
    userid as i,
    collect_list(
      feature(itemid, ln(purchase_count+1)) -- use scaled value
    ) as feature_vector
  from
    user_purchased
  group by
    userid
),
partial_result as ( -- launch DIMSUM in a MapReduce fashion
  select
    dimsum_mapper(f.feature_vector, m.mags, '-threshold 0.5')
      as (itemid, other, s)
  from
    item_features f
  left outer join item_magnitude m
),
similarity as (
  -- reduce (i.e., sum up) mappers' partial results
  select
    itemid, 
    other,
    sum(s) as similarity
  from 
    partial_result
  group by
    itemid, other
),
topk as (
  select
    each_top_k( -- get top-10 items based on similarity score
      10, itemid, similarity,
      itemid, other -- output items
    ) as (rank, similarity, itemid, other)
  from (
    select * from similarity
    CLUSTER BY itemid
  ) t
)
-- insert overwrite table item_similarity
select 
  itemid, other, similarity
from 
  topk
;

Ultimately, using item_similarity for item-based recommendation is straightforward in a similar way to what we explained above.

In the above query, an important part is obviously dimsum_mapper(f.feature_vector, m.mags, '-threshold 0.5'). An option -threshold is a real value in [0, 1) range, and intuitively it illustrates "similarities above this threshold are approximated by the DIMSUM algorithm".

Create item_similarity from Upper Triangular Matrix

Thanks to the symmetric property of similarity matrix, DIMSUM enables you to utilize space-efficient Upper-Triangular-Matrix-style output by just adding an option -disable_symmetric_output:

create table item_similarity as
with item_magnitude as (
  ...
),
partial_result as (
  select
    dimsum_mapper(f.feature_vector, m.mags, '-threshold 0.5 -disable_symmetric_output')
      as (itemid, other, s)
  from
    item_features f
  left outer join item_magnitude m
),
similarity_upper_triangular as (
  -- if similarity of (i1, i2) pair is in this table, (i2, i1)'s similarity is omitted
  select
    itemid, 
    other,
    sum(s) as similarity
  from 
    partial_result
  group by
    itemid, other
),
similarity as ( -- copy (i1, i2)'s similarity as (i2, i1)'s one
  select itemid, other, similarity from similarity_upper_triangular
  union all
  select other as itemid, itemid as other, similarity from similarity_upper_triangular
),
topk as (
  ...

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